The Political History of the World

The Age of Discovery (TranScript Podcast)

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Before we jump into the story today there’s a few quick housekeeping matters and I want to cover. This should hopefully explain to you what I’m trying to do here with this podcast. This podcast mingle is going to be explaining the political history of the United States. Everybody always talks about how the United States is this grand political experiment I want to dive into these questions and look at exactly how this government came to be how it functions and how the events drive the government.

If you’re looking for a podcast that is going to explain to formations drain the battle of Antietam then you’re probably in the wrong place if on the other hand you’re looking for a podcast that will explore the political ramifications both short term and long term for the battle of Antietam welcome. The bank is going to function as follows I plan on releasing a new episodes every 2 weeks with Sunday being the day that I plan to release new content.

Every episode will range between 20 and 30 minutes though I do expect times I’m gonna end up deviating from that. The podcast is gonna be them further broken down into seasons with every season focusing on a specific area and set of events when I wrap up a season I will take a short break well I prepare content for the next season.

I‘m going to try to get this done in such a way where every season is going to be pretty much self contained that means somebody can jump into any particular season without feeling too terribly left behind though of course I’m going to encourage all of you to take this from the very beginning your mileage will vary but that’s gonna be the best bang for your Buck with that I’d like to introduce our first season the plan for the first season is going to be moving through those early colonial years specifically I plan to focus on the colonies in place before 1650 L.

Other companies are going to spring up after that it’s going to be this first group coming over to places like Jamestown Plymouth Massachusetts that really going to pave the way for that future expansion. So my goal for this season is get those colonies up and on to their feet. When I started planning for the podcast the first question I had to answer is where to start now this is not as easy of a question as 1 might imagine the first permanent English colony what would become the United States with the Jamestown in spring of 1607 and that does seem like a good starting point right well it’s not. The goal of the podcast is telling a political story of the United States the events that led us to where we are today and while the story of the American colonies does officially began in 1607 it is a venting Europe that would dictate the first systems of government that’s brought up in the colonies the economy the religion all of it so for the initial period at least the story of politics in the protean added sees is a story of politics in Europe. Because of that before we make our way across the Atlantic I want to spend the first several episodes looking at the political economic and religious situation in Europe on the eve of the first American colonies. This will answer the question of who were the first colonists and what were their motivations for coming to the New World. For the first several episodes are going to be a quick survey of Europe specifically England in the sixteenth century.

Before we can do all that however I think is really important to step back even further into give very very quick one episode to her at the age of discovery. Not this podcast is absolutely not going to be focused on this area and if you’re truly interested in the era this probably isn’t going to be the end of the episode that you’re hoping for. The goal for today’s episode is to give you a half hour tour of the age of discovery and explain how Europeans found themselves crossing the Atlantic. Finally before we begin today I want to make a note about names people and places guys I’m gonna tell you right now I am genuinely terrible I correctly pronouncing people’s names so I’m gonna give the preemptive apology for any names that I better throughout the entire course of the show and promised that I will do my absolute best to get it right or at least get us as close as possible. All right with that let’s dive into some history to begin our story what factors led to the age of discovery we must begin looking at the events that push countries to begin seeking an alternative route to the index for thousands of years the main way to move goods between the east and the west was the Silk Road Europeans depended on the spices and silk and other goods they came across this road. Now the Silk Road had spent centuries is the main path between Europe and Asia. Lucrative spice trade moved across it as well as silk other textiles and other luxury goods that the European population demanded the goods would move from Asia into Constantinople from there the Republic of Venice had control then as we get the goods and then sell them to the rest of Europe acting essentially as the middle man. And the other European powers were not thrilled with the situation he was far from ideal for them they would have always preferred to work without the middle man. However. Prior to the fifth 14 fifties nobody had really been able to challenge the Venetian stranglehold. Things were would change in 1453 well then it’s controlled the trade they were dependent on the goods from the stock room making it into Constantinople in 1453 the Roman Empire finally vanished from this earth. The father present him led to the rapid decline of the Silk Road the overland passage that imli became much more difficult to travel and far more dangerous likewise the Ottomans were more than happy to keep the goods and act as the middleman themselves and reap huge profits on Europe wanting to find a way to avoid the surging prices from the Ottomans the ideal solution became finding another route that did not depend on the Silk Road and kept the European nations out of the often dangerous waters of the Mediterranean. The most logical route here therefore was to travel down along the coast of Africa around the Cape of Good Hope and then up towards India. Well the focus in the second half of the fifteenth century was traveling around the African Cape at least up until that final decade the idea that ceiling west maybe the faster route did exist. In 1474 Palo Verde posso Tuscan alley suggested that a faster route to India may be traveling west by sees at circumnavigated the globe tusky valley was a leading figure at that time in the Florentine renaissance and was known as a humanist physician astronomer and mathematician. Using figures from Ptolemy Tuscan alley became convinced that the distance from Europe and Asia sailing west was only about one third distance of the globe. Tusky valley believed that the Asian landmass was quite a bit larger than it is in reality tusky valley shared his findings with fern Martines a priest at the cathedral of Lisbon in Portugal he sent him his findings as well as a map of what he believed in the ocean to look back at tusky valley’s request my teens brought the map and the funding to the Portuguese court who at that time was under Alfonso the fifth Tuscan Ellie was hoping that the map would influence of fans of the fifth to lead a journey go west to see what they find. At that time however Portugal was not interested instead looking for a way to move around the Cape of Africa. The one known at the time the more important development came from a young sailor from Genoa who learned of the map and requested a copy from Tuscan alley. The sailor of course it is Christopher Columbus. Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in general which is a modern day Italy him along with his brother Bartholomew I believe that you could reach the Indies through a western path as opposed to having to travel around the African horn. With a map provided by task Natalie the brothers sought out to seek a sponsor for this endeavor. Bartholomew headed up to England and France where he was rejected by Henry the seventh of England and met the same fate when he approached Charles the eighth in France. Bartholomew failed to ever secure the financing. To make matters worse for about the time he returned finally to Spain Christopher Columbus was off on his second voyage. Christopher Columbus decided to approach the Spanish crap Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand the second of Eragon. When Columbus first to push the crown in 1489 Spain rejected the idea of the juror. Now they were interested enough that they chose to put Columbus on a commission heads keeping him in town and much more importantly keeping him from going anywhere else in case in the future they change their mind. The initial concern was over the math at Columbus.mathematicians in cartographers in Spain believed correctly that Columbus had underestimated the distance between Spain and the Indies. Not a great start to get your math wrong. The concern was that with the underestimation by Columbus and by him not fully understanding the size of the circumference of the earth the venture was gonna cost significantly more than Columbus had originally anticipated now alternately the crown was correct Columbus is math was wrong Furthermore Tuscan alley in his mapping mis judged the size of Asia now this is something we’re going to discuss in a few minutes and this is going to end up having major implications on the foliage. Ultimately however as we all know the crowd eventually does decide to support this mission. Columbus was able to gain more interest from Isabel and Ferdinand the second by stating that he had hoped that he could use the wealth he gained to recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims. This brings us to our first point of why did Spain fund the trip Spanish military at this time is at a high point they could just force the Muslim influence off the Iberian peninsula by winning battles at Granada. Columbus came to them with a journey that was relatively low risk for the Spanish yet brought with it the chance of extremely high reward. The crown having just finished the last war had resurfaces bear at the moment and the only true risk was that either Columbus would be lost at sea taking his crew of approximately 90 with him or that he would simply failed in his mission. Beyond that in a small amount of resources there was very little actual risk to the mission. The reward for the Spanish should the mission succeed was threefold. The first objective was to spread Catholicism and this is a big deal of the time we’re living in an extremely religious time. Remember the speed he just kicked the final Muslim stronghold off the Iberian peninsula if they’re battling Granada back in January of 1492. At the time the claim is got the sponsorship he was literally weeks past the Alhambra decree expelling Jewish people from both could steal Eragon that decree was signed in March of 1492 and let’s not forget that back in 1478 Isabella started the Spanish Inquisition the Spanish desire to spread Catholicism is far more than pure lip service to justify trade this is a tangible desire of the Spanish and we’ll prove that it was in fact more than pure lip service the fact remains that trade remained 1 of the primary objectives of the Spanish if the mission succeed the Spanish could have an express route to the Indies giving them a large trade advantage well the rest of Europe struggle to catch up with this huge advantage Spain will become even more of a powerful force in Europe and would essentially take the role of the Republic of Venice as the middle man bringing goods into Europe. The final thing that they had to consider with keeping Columbus from going elsewhere. Both Isabella and Ferdinand the second we’re aware that the Columbus brothers were actively shopping their expedition Bartholomew had already been including friends and they didn’t want another government higher Columbus and get the reward should the mission succeed now Isabella received this advice from her treasurer we sent in a gal who advised her that the trip was a small risk for a chance at glory also taking time to point out to that should Columbus go to another monarch find success she would face harsh criticism at home. From the perspective of the Spanish there for the worst cases simply losing Columbus or having him fail in his mission with the reward bean riches and prestige throughout Europe Spain could become the center of the trading world should Columbus succeed with all this in mind Isabel agreed and Columbus got his funding. On 4/17/1492 the capitulation the Santa Fe were greeted. Columbus will be named the admiral of the ocean see any island and the mainland that he’d already discovered this was a hereditary title for life. Likewise Columbus would be nominated vice ring governor general and all the islands and mainland that he would discover now most importantly for Columbus he would have a right to one tenth of everything found in the new territories the discoveries were obviously much greater that anybody could do to dissipate this leads to a long and interesting series of court cases when the Spanish decided that pain Columbus that one tenth was not going to happen. On August 3 Christopher Columbus set out with his 3 ships the Nina the pinta and the Santa Maria. Sailing first to the Canary Islands where he had to stop for supplies and repairs Columbus would then leave again on September 6. On October 12 a look at Martine and someone on the pen to sell land. Ferdinand and Isabella someone would have received a lifetime pension. Except Christopher Columbus himself claimed that he had spotted them several hours earlier and took the pension for himself. Oh well Columbus made landfall on which he named the island of San Salvador however despite knowing it was somewhere in the Bahamas debate remains today exactly as to the location of Columbus’s first discovery. Now there is a modern day island in the Bahamas called San Salvador however the island was named after the fact and really it’s only a guess of that may have been the place that Columbus first landed Columbus would spend the next several weeks exploring the northern portions of what is today Cuba as well as the island of Hispaniola. During his voyages Columbus police believe that he had found the West Indies why is that. Remember that map that Columbus was using the wind from Tuscan alley. And remember how Columbus right before he made the trip had given the crown some bad numbers and everybody doubted his math. Well as it turns out they were probably right to doubt the math because it was wrong. Likewise the map by tasking alley was also wrong. You see Christopher Columbus had miscalculated the size of the ocean he was incorrect about the size of the circumference of the earth and thought that the ocean was smaller than it actually was at the same time Tuscan alley in correctly predicted the size of Asia thank you it extended much further to the east and it really did come behind that means the predicted location of Asia is nowhere close to where Columbus expected to find it. However when everybody is at this point I’m aware of is that there were 2 additional contents in the middle of the ocean that just so happened to be roughly where tusky valley and Columbus predicted that there would be land. It obviously wasn’t the land the Tuscan alley predicted that it would be but nobody knew that at the time. Over on the website I have included a copy of the Tuscan alley map overlaid on a modern world map that you can look at that and see where the confusion came from. I had to take a quick break from the narrative it occurs to me that I just mentioned the website and you may have no idea that I have a website. If you’d like to visit the political history the United States website you can do so by going to U. S. political podcast.com. Now back to the story Columbus finally wrapped up the journey on 1/13/1493 and made his way back to spate. Green the return trip Columbus to make a stop in Portugal where it is possible that he came in contact with the young Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan we spend 1519 to 1522 circumnavigated the globe though following the disastrous stop in the Philippines Magellan would spend the final year of his journey dead. Columbus himself would make 3 more trips in his lifetime to the New World the first 2 voyages of Columbus were focused on exploring the area in and around the Bahamas and the Caribbean. The third boy age cycle in this explore the northern portions of South America finding the mouth of the Orinoco river. Not based on the amount of water flowing from the river Columbus concluded that he was not looking to not end but instead was looking at a new continent Columbus road to the strip that he’d found a previously unknown Condit and that got him made him the messenger of the New World this is the first time in the sources that I could actually find the use of the term New World but at the same time however the gravity the discovery still appears to have been lost on Columbus Columbus and his brother sketch with they believed to be the south American coast in the sketches they show a new continent mondo novo. The company appears to be a bolt off the coast of China not a standalone con in which we today know it is on its final voyage Columbus will explore Central America. By the end of the third voyage Columbus have begun to fall out of favor with the Spanish monarchs Columbus at this time had developed a reputation for harsh rule and general incompetence this reputation he becomes so troubling by the end of the third voyage both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus were imprisoned well the Columbus brothers were ultimately freed in the crowd agreed to fund for the voyage Columbus we never again enjoy the degree of favor he once had with the Spanish crown Columbus would never again be governor in the New World. This becomes an important point as it provides the basis for the Spanish credited nightclub is that wanted to share that he claims he was entitled to as I said earlier this does lead to a series of court cases which do does fall outside the scope of our story. Christopher Columbus would return from his final voyage in November of 15042 years later Christopher Columbus dies. So the question now is did Christopher Columbus 6 seed. This is a difficult thing to answer and there is some level of debate on what success means. Let’s not forget that when Columbus pitched his idea to the crowd the goal is to fight a westerly route to India Columbus failed in this mission he never found India nor did he ever get particularly close to India. Portugal who it’s been nearly half a century working on getting to India by going around the Cape of Africa would finally succeed in 1498 when Vasco da Gama completed the journey this opened up a water route that avoided the use of the Mediterranean and the overland passage the success but a government established Portugal as an early imperial power and led to the rise of the Portuguese empire. Though not known at the time of the death of Columbus his discovery would lead to the creation of the Spanish empire an empire that will remain in place until the 18 hundreds when Simone believe R. began his process of Indian Spanish rule in the Americas. In this way Columbus did manage to bring great amounts of success to the futurist pain though in a completely unintended and unexpected way. Today the reputation of Columbus is another matter entirely. Well he’s still often celebrated as being a great explore any central figure of the age of discovery in the late twentieth century and early 20 first century his reputation for the treatment of native populations has largely come under scrutiny. Columbus was far from the only person to make the trek across the Atlantic Jon Kabat will make the journey for England in 1497 Lennon initially in Newfoundland. Kabat believed the fastest way to China with 3 northerly route however much like Columbus combined never found China has North America was in the way. Likewise much the same as Columbus could but never seem to realize that North America with more than just a mere island welcome but failed to find a route to China the spices or the gold that he was seeking for he did discover some of the most important fisheries in the world fisheries that would be used for centuries thereafter. The Portuguese in 1499 launched an expedition led by visiting Penzone which scatter the south American coast during this trip he would ultimately disembark in what would become Brazil now in case you’re wondering that if that name soon seems familiar you’re right is because we just talked about it a few minutes ago with his brother Martine Penzone that’s the guy who got cheated out of his pension by Columbus Vincente is his little brother America the speech he will publish what is today known as the modest novus letter in the early sixteenth century. In this letter published sometime around 1503 to 1504 the speech she would claim that what Columbus speculated to be a previously unknown portion of Asia was in fact an entirely new content. Unlike Columbus however the speech she recognized that the new content was not connected to Asia and in fact was a previously unknown land mass. Over the next decade this lady would rapidly grow and became increasingly accepted by the end of the first decade of the sixteenth century it was accepted that Columbus had discovered not the eastern portion of Asia but something altogether new.

It would not be until Magellan circumnavigated the globe between 1519 and 1522 that the actual Indies were discovered by traveling west the final thing that I want to talk about in this episode is the treaty of toward a CS the treaty toward a CS is a treaty between the Spanish and the Portuguese to divide the New World I dispute opened before the end of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus between Spain and Portugal. John the second was relying on the 1479 treaty of Alka Voss. Which stated that all the land south of the Canary Islands belonged to Portugal John the second decided that he wanted to claim to Columbus’s discoveries for himself and began preparing an armada dealing take these new lance. The Ferdinand and Isabella had a serious problem here they lacked the naval power to match the Portuguese in the Atlantic. Being in such a poor position militarily Spain made the decision to seek a diplomatic solution as opposed to a military one initially pope Alexander the 6 attempted to mediate however John the second found that the pope is granting far too much to Spain. Wanting to avoid a military confrontation Portugal and Spain continue to negotiate and 1494 the treaty of toward a CS website under the treaty a line was drawn through the unknown lands as a result the Portuguese instep with control over the eastern portion of what would later become Brazil. The Portuguese were also permitted to continue cleaning land east of the light Portugal left the table please that they were still able to conquer lands east of allied as their interest late largely in the islands around India and India itself. Question on the second had no idea the size of South America it wouldn’t be until 1498 that Columbus would have the first clue the South America simply was not just some eyelet. The result is that speed ended up claiming nearly the whole of South America well Spain would allow Portuguese expansion in Brazil specifically the remainder of South America ended up becoming the basis for the Spanish empire. Spain and Portugal are not the only European powers so what about the rest of Europe. Well actually the answer is the rest of Europe simply ignored the treaty of toward a CS. This becomes especially pronounced following the reformation in the middle of the sixteenth century suddenly the newly Protestant countries care far less that there was a treaty endorsed by the church. Next time we will take a look at the political situation in Europe during the sixteenth century we will check in and see who the major players are during the latter part of the 415 hundreds and exactly what they were doing. It is under these conditions of the first English colonies in North America will be fort. I want to thank you all for listening. As many of you have probably figured out this is my first ever episode by casting and I would love to hear your feedback and your ideas of what I can do to make this podcast even better. So I encourage you to contact me again and leave me feedback. I appreciate you listening and we’ll be back in 2 weeks for a tour of European politics thank you.

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The Political History of the World